The Effect of Hedged-form Feedback vs. Uncoded Feedback on Grammatical Accuracy of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

Document Type : Research Paper


Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, Tonekabon, Iran


Abstract The extent to which teachers’ written corrective feedback (WCF) is conducive to ESL learners’ improvement has been discussed since Truscott’s claim in 1996. The mentioned debate continues because there has been lots of contrastive research studies with different results. This paper presents the results of a 2-month study of the effectiveness of WCF to 65 low intermediate Iranian learners. In the first phase, the students were divided into two groups of hedged group and control group, which received uncoded feedback. The learners produced 8 pieces of writing (Nelson Test was given to students to homogenize the groups). The first piece of writing was considered as the pretest and the 8th piece of their writing was considered as their posttest. Independent and paired sample t test were used to analyse the data statistically. The result of comparing the mean performance of the two groups in posttest indicated that the probability value was less than .05 (p = .000 < .05) which means that the mean performance of the two sets of scores in post test is significantly different and the hedged form feedback group has outperformed the one who received uncoded feedback.


  • Receive Date: 14 April 2016
  • Revise Date: 22 July 2016
  • Accept Date: 16 September 2016
  • First Publish Date: 01 December 2016