The effect of bottom-up and top-down auditory program training on the development of children's auditory processing skills

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of English, Bonab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bonab, Iran

2 Department of English, Bonab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bonab Branch, Iran


Although there have been several previous investigations on the role of auditory training for the development of auditory processing skills, it still remains unknown whether children with auditory processing difficulties can get improved auditory skills after exposure to a multi-modal training experience comprising both visual and tactile stimuli. The present study, therefore, attempted to use electronic game applications to foster the auditory processing skills of children who suffer from deficits in their listening abilities. For this purpose, the Listening Inventory for Education (LIFE) questionnaire was administered to the potential number of learners and those learners scoring below the mean were selected as the participants. Children were then assigned to one of two experimental groups: bottom-up (n = 15) and top-down (n = 15). Each group was required to complete a training program on an iPad, using the Auditory Workout app for top-down training and Auditory Processing Studio app for bottom-up auditory training. Their progress was recorded through their responses to the LIFE questionnaire. Results were then analyzed quantitatively through the use of an independent samples t test. Findings revealed the significant effectiveness of both bottom-up and top-down approaches in bring about enhanced auditory skills; results are further discussed with respect to the existing literature.


  • Receive Date: 01 June 2018
  • Revise Date: 12 August 2018
  • Accept Date: 16 October 2018
  • First Publish Date: 16 October 2018