The Effect of Critical Thinking and Brainstorming as Pre-Writing Stage Activities on EFL Pre-Intermediate Learners’ Expository Writing

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of ELT, Khouzestan Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran

2 ELT Department, Abadan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abadan, Iran


The present study aimed at investigating the effect of critical thinking (CT) versus brainstorming (BS) as pre-writing stage activities on English as a foreign language (EFL) pre-intermediate learners’ expository writing. To achieve this aim, 100 pre-intermediate level participants studying at Naft Language Center in Ahvaz were selected based on convenience sampling method. They took part in Oxford Quick Placement Test (OQPT) and 60 of them were assigned into three equal homogeneous groups; two experimental groups of CT and BS compared to one control group (CO). They received three different kinds of treatments lasting 13 sessions of 90 minutes. The CT group received exercises on major CT skills (e.g., inferencing, recognition, deduction) and BS group go through think, pair and share steps to outline the writing tasks. Prior to the main study, students wrote a 150-word expository writing about one of the topics chosen from their textbooks as a pre-test. Finally, all groups were asked to write another 150-word expository writing as a post-test after the implementation of the proposed treatment. The results indicated that both CT and BS as pre-writing stage activities led to the enhancement of the participants’ expository writing performance.


  • Receive Date: 11 May 2018
  • Revise Date: 26 September 2018
  • Accept Date: 11 November 2018
  • First Publish Date: 11 November 2018