Effects of CALL-Mediated TBLT on Self-Efficacy for Reading among Iranian University Non-English Major EFL Students

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

Department of English Language, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

Abstract

The rich and still expanding literature on TBLT is helping to mature both its theoretical conceptualization and practical implementation in foreign and second language education. Similarly, computer-assisted language learning (CALL) has grown as a field, with the use and integration of technology in the classroom continuing to increase and will continue to play an important role in this maturation process. The present study, hence, reports on an empirical study that investigated the effects of CALL-mediated TBLT on the perceived self- efficacy of Iranian university non-English major EFL students. Through non-probability and convenience sampling, two intact freshmen classes were chosen and randomly assigned as the experimental and the control group. During the treatment sessions, the students in the experimental group received instruction in a CALL-mediated TBLT format, while the control group received no CALL-mediated TBLT instruction but underwent only a task- based instruction on reading without the mediation of CALL. A univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was run, while controlling for pre-intervention scores as the covariate. A significant effect was found for CALL-mediated TBLT (F = 81.450, p = .000, partial eta squared =.504), suggesting CALL-mediated TBLT had a positive effect on the self-efficacy perceptions of the students in the experimental group .

Keywords


Alderman, M. K. (2004). Motivation for achievement: Possibilities for teaching and learning (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Alivernini, F., & Lucidi, F. (2011). Relationship between social context, self-efficacy, motivation, academic achievement, and intention to drop out of high school: A longitudinal study. The Journal of Educational Research, 104(4), 241-252.

Allan, D. (2004). Oxford Placement Test 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bandura, A. (1997b). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman.

Bandura, A., & Schunk, D. H. (1981). Cultivating competence, self-efficacy, and intrinsic interest through proximal self-motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 586–598.

Barkley, J. M. (2006). Reading Education: Is self-Efficacy important? Reading Improvement, 43(4), 194-210.

Bates, R., & Khasawheh, S. (2007). Self-efficacy and college students’ perceptions and use of onlinelearning systems. Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 175-191.

Best, J. W., & Kahn, J.  (2006). Research in Education. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. 

Bouffard-Bouchard, T. (1990). Influence of self-efficacy on performance in a cognitive task.The Journal of Social Psychology, 130, (3), 353-363.

Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy (2nd ed.). New York: Longman

Brown, J. D. (2005). Testing in Language Programs: A Comprehensive Guide to English Language Assessment. McGraw-Hill College.

Brown, J. S. (2000). Growing up: Digital: How the web changes work, education, and the ways people learn. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 32(2), 11-20.

Bruner, J. S. (1960). The process of education. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Bygate, M. (1994). Adjusting the focus: teacher roles in task-based learning of grammar. In M. Bygate, A. Tonkyn & E. Williams (Eds.), Grammar and the language teacher (pp. 237–59). Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall International.

Bygate, M., Skehan, P., & Swain, M. (2001). Researching pedagogic tasks: Second language learning, teaching and testing. Harlow: Longman.

Castagnaro, A. V. (2012). Evaluating sixth graders’ self-efficacy in response to the use of educational technology (Doctoral dissertation, The Claremont Graduate University). Retrieved from https:// search. proquest. com/openview/ a5d3d8d0d97c12e9bed9054867770 e90/ 1? pq- origsite = gscholar&cbl= 18750&diss=y.

Chemers, M. M., Hu, L. T., & Garcia, B. F. (2001). Academic self-efficacy and first year college student performance and adjustment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93 (1)55.

Chou, C. (2007). A study on the relationships among English self-efficacy, English learning anxiety, English learning strategies and English learning achievement of senior high school students (Unpublisheddoctoral dissertation).National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Chowdhury, M. S., & Shahabuddin, A. M. (2007). Self-efficacy, motivation and their relationship to academic performance of Bangladesh College Students. College Quarterly, 10(1), 1–9.

Coutinho, S. A., & Neuman, G. (2008). A model of metacognition, achievement goal orientation, learning style and self-efficacy. Learning Environments Research, 11(2), 131-151.

Decuyper, S., Dochy, F., & Van den Bossche, P. (2010). Grasping the dynamic complexity of team learning. An integrative systemic model for effective team learning. Educational Research Review, 5(2), 111–133.

DeTure, M. (2004). Cognitive style and self-efficacy: Predicting student success in online distance learning. The American Journal of Distance Education, 18(1), 21–38.

Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York: Collier Books.

Doughty, C., & Long, M. (2003). Optimal psycholinguistic environments for distance foreign language learning. Language Learning & Technology, 7, 50–80.

Duan, C., Li, F., Wu, G, & Zhang, J. (2001). Research on self-efficacy of distance learning and its influence to learners’ attainments. Proceeding of the International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE), 1510-1517.

Egbert, J. L. (2005). Conducting research on CALL. In J. L. Egbert & G. M. Petrie (Eds.), CALL research perspectives (pp. 3–8). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gahungu, N. O. (2007). The relationships among strategy use, self-efficacy, and language ability in foreign language learners. (Unpublisheddoctoral dissertation). Northern Arizona University.

González-Lloret, M., & Ortega, L. (2014). Technology-mediated TBLT: Researching technology and tasks. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.

González-Lloret, M. (2015). A practical guide to integrating technology into task-based language teaching. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Goulão, M. F. (2014). The relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement in adults’ learners. Athens Journal of Education, 1(3), 237-246.

Graham, S., & Weiner, B. (1996). Theories and principles of motivation. In D. C. Berliner & R. C. Calfee(Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 63-84). New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan.

Gruba, P., & Hinkelman, D. (2012). Blended tech­nologies in second language classrooms. New York, NY: Palgrave.

Heward, W. L. (2000). Exceptional children: An introduction to special education (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.

Hodges, C. B. (2008). Self-efficacy in the context of online learning environments: a review of the literature and directions for research. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 20(3–4), 7–25.

Hoffman, B., & Spatariu, A. (2008). The influence of self-efficacy and metacognitive prompting on math problem-solving efficiency. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33, 875-893.

Kozlowski, S. W. J., & Salas, E. (Eds.). (2010). Learning, training, and development in organizations. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Lafford, B. (2009). Toward an ecological CALL: Update to Garrett (1991). Modern Language Journal, 93, 673–696.

Lai, C., & Li, G. (2011). Technology and task-based language teaching: A critical review. CALICO Journal28(2), 498-521.

Lamy, M. N., & Hampel, R. (2007). Online communication in language learning and teaching. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.

Lankshear, C., & Knobel, M. (2011). New literacies: Everyday practices and social learning (3rd ed.). Maidenhead & New York: Open University Press.

Latour, B. (2005). Reassembling the social: an introduction to actor-network theory. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lee, J. (2000). Tasks and Communicating in Language Classrooms. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Lim, C. P. (2004). Engaging learners in online learning environments. TechTrends, 48(4), 16–23.

Linnenbrink, E. A., & Pintrich, P. R. (2002). Motivation as an enabler for academic success. School Psychology Review, 31, 313–327.

Littlewood, W. (2004). The task-based approach: Some questions and suggestions. ELT journal, 58, 319-326.

Long, M. H. (1990). Second language classroom research and teacher education. In C. Brumfit & R. Mitchell (Eds.), Research in the language classroom. ELT Documents 133, 161–70.

Long, M. H., & Crookes, G. (1993). Units of analysis in syllabus design: The case for task. In G. Crooks & S. M. Gass (Eds.), Tasks in pedagogical context: Integrating theory and practice (pp. 9–54). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Long, M. H., & Norris, J. M. (2000). Task-based teaching and assessment. In Byram, M. (ed.), Encyclopedia of language teaching (pp. 597–603). London: Routledge.

Lorsbach, A. W., & Jinks, J. L. (1999). Self-efficacy theory and learning environment research. Learning Environments Research, 2, 157–167.

Maag, J. W. (1999). Behavior management: From theoretical implications to practical applications. San Diego, CA: Singular.

Margolis, H., & McCabe, P. (2006). Improving self-efficacy and motivation: What to do, what to say. Intervention in School and Clinic 41(4), 218-227.

Meece, J. L., Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (1990). Predictors of math anxiety and its influence on young adolescents’ course enrollment intentions and performance in mathematics. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82 (1), 60.

Mills, N., Pajares, F., & Herron, C. (2007). Self‚Äźefficacy of college intermediate French students: Relation to achievement and motivation. Language Learning, 57(3), 417–442.

Moiinvaziri, M. (2008). Motivational orientation in English language learning: A study of Iranian undergraduate students. Global practices of language teaching. Proceedings of International Online Language Conference (IOLC).  Universal-publishers. Boca Raton, Florida, US, 126–135.

Multon, K. D., Brown, S. D., & Lent, R. W. (1991). Relation of self-efficacy beliefs to academic outcomes: a meta-analysis investigation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38(1), 30–38.

Nahavandi, N. & Mukundan, J. (2013). Foreign Language Learning Anxiety among Iranian EFL learners Along Gender and Different Proficiency Levels. Language in India, 13(1), 133-161.

Nevil, A. M. (2008). The impact of reading self-efficacy and the regulation of cognition on the reading achievement of an intermediate elementary sample (Unpublisheddoctoral dissertation). Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

Nilsen, H. (2009). Influence on student academic behavior through motivation, self-efficacy and value-expectation: an action research project to improve learning. Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 6, 545–556.

Nunan, D. (2004). Task-based language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ortega, L. (1999). Planning and focus on form in L2 oral performance. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21, 109–48.

Ortega, L. (2009a, September 13-16). Task and technology in language learning: Elective affinities and (dis)encounters. Plenary delivered at the 3rd International Task-Based Language TeachingConference. Lancaster, UK.

Ortega, L., & Zyzik, E. (2008). Online interactions and L2 learning: Some ethical challenges for L2 researchers. In S. Magnan (Ed.), Mediating discourse online (pp. 331-355). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.

Pajares, F. (2002). Gender and perceived self-efficacy in self-regulated learning. Theory into practice41(2), 116–125.

Pan, C. (2008). A year-long investigation of self-efficacy for technology integration and behavior pattern in a pre-service technology course using Hispanic student population. International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning, 4(1), 34–44.

Petersen, K., & Sachs, R. (2015). The language classroom in the age of networked learning. In R. P. Leow, L. Cerezo, & M. Baralt (Eds.), Technology and L2 learning: A psycholinguistic approach. Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter Mouton.

Pica, T., Kanagy, R., & Falodun, J. (1993). Choosing and using communication tasks for second language instruction. In G. Crookes & S. Gass (Eds.), Tasks and language learning: Integrating theory and practice (pp. 9–34). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Pintrich, P. R., & De Groot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 33-40

Pintrich, P. R., & Schunk, D. (2002). Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Prabhu, N. S. (1987). Second language pedagogy. A perspective, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Richards, J. C. (2005). Communicative language teaching today (RELC portfolio Series 13). Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Center.

Salend, S. J. (2001). Creating inclusive classrooms: Effective and reflective practices (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill

Salomon, G. (1984). Television is “easy” and print is “tough”: The differential investment of mental effort in learning as a function of perceptions and attributions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 647–658.

Samuda, V., & Bygate, M. (2008). Tasks in second language learning. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Schmid, E. C. (2009). Interactive whiteboard technology in the language classroom: Exploring new pedagogical opportunities. VDM, Verlag Dr. Müller.

Schunk, D, H, (1982a). Effects of effort attributional feedback on children’s perceived self-efficacy and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 548–556.

Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (Eds.) (1998). Self-regulated learning: From teaching to
self-reflective practice. New York: Guilford Press.

Shield L., & Kukulska-Hulme A. (Eds.) (2008). Special issue of ReCALL on Mobile Assisted Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Skehan, P. & Foster, P. (1997). The influence of planning and post-task activities on
accuracy and complexity in task-based learning. Language Teaching Research. 1(3):
185–211.

Skehan, P. (2011). Researching tasks: Performance, assessment, and pedagogy. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.

Swan, K. (2004). Learning online: a review of current research on issues of interface, teaching presence and learner characteristics. Paper presented at the Elements of Quality Online Education, Needham, MA.

Taipjutorus, W., Hansen, S., & Brown, M. (2012). Investigating a Relationship between Learner Control and Self-efficacy in an Online Learning Environment. Journal of Open, Flexible, and Distance Learning, 16(1), 56-69

Talebinezhad, M. R., & Aliakbari, M. (2002). Evaluation and justification of a paradigm shift in the current ELT model in Iran. Linguistik online, 10(1), 21–28. Retrieved from www.linguistik-online.de/10_02/talebinezhadaliakbari.pdf

Thomas, M. (2013).Task-based language teaching and CALL. In M. Thomas, H. Reinders, & M. Warschauer (Eds.), Contemporary computer-assisted language learning (pp. 341–358). London: Continuum.

Vaezi, Z. (2008). Language learning motivation among Iranian undergraduate students. World Applied Sciences Journal, 5(1), 54-61.

Van den Branden, K. (2006). Task-based language education: From theory to practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Van Dinther, M., Dochy, F., & Segers, M. (2011). Factors affecting students’ self-efficacy in higher education. Educational Research Review, 6(2), 95–108

Van Gennip, N. A. E., Segers, M., & Tillema, H. H. (2009). Peer assessment for learning from a social perspective: The influence of interpersonal and structural features. Learning and Instruction, 4(1), 41–54.

Van Lier, L. (2004). The ecology and semiotics of language learning: A sociocultural perspective. Boston: Kluwer Academic.

Vancouver, J. B., & Kendall, L. N. (2006). When self-efficacy negatively relates to motivation and performance in a learning context. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(5), 1146–1153.). Task-based language education: from theory to practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Warschauer, M. (1998b). Researching technology in TESOL: Determinist, instrumental and critical approaches. TESOL Quarterly, 32(4), 757–761.

Willis, D., & Willis, J. (2007). Doing Task-based Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Willis, J. (1996). A Framework for Task-Based Teaching. Harlow, UK: Longman.

Willis, J. (2004). Perspectives on task-based instruction: understanding our practices, acknowledging different practitioners. In Leaver, J. and Willis J. Task-based instruction in foreign language education (3–44). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Wu, C. P. (2006). The effects of goal orientation, self-efficacy, and cognitive/metacognitive self-regulatory strategy use on EFL college students’ course achievement. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Southern California.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1990). Student differences in self-regulated learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 51–59.

Zimmerman, B. J., Bandura, A., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1992). Self-motivation for academic attainments: The role of self-efficacy beliefs and personal goal setting. American Educational Research Journal, 29, 663-676.