Junior High School EFL Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Collaborative Action Research

Document Type: Research Paper


English Department, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran


This study aimed to analyze high school EFL teachers’ attitudes toward collaborative action research (CAR). This study was of both qualitative and quantitative types. The number of the selected samples of this research, based on the convenience sampling method, were 20 male and female EFL teachers teaching at the Education and Training Organization of Isfahan Province. As the instrument of this research, they were given the standard questionnaire of Savaskan (2013) and Byrnes (2009) to fill. Then, the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t-test through SPSS Software, version 25. According to the obtained results, based on descriptive statistics, both male and female teachers had a positive attitude toward collaborative action research. (56.25% of the answers were under average (3) which showd a more positive attitude). Also, in comparison with the female teachers, male ones had a more positive attitude toward collaborative action research (2.70˂2.95). Conducting such research in this realm paves the way to make sure about the right selection of the teaching techniques in general, and collaborative action research and its subcategories in particular.


Agcam, R & Babanoglu, M. P. (2016). An investigation on EFL teachers’ attitude toward teaching profession. Higher Education Studies, 6(3): 21-31.
Al-Kharusi, H., Aldhafri, S., Alnabhani, H., & Alkalbani, M. (2012). Educational assessment attitudes, competence, knowledge, and practices: An exploratory study of Muscat teachers in the Sultanate of Oman. Journal of Education and Learning, 1(2): 1-14.
Banegas, D. (2013). Teacher Professional Development through Collaborative Action Research: Impact on Foreign English-Language Teaching and Learning. Educational Action Research, 21(2): 185-201.
Banegas, D. L. (2012). Identity of the Teacher-Researcher in Collaborative Action Research: Concerns Reflected in a Research Journal. Bogotá: 14(2): 1-15.
Breckler, S. J. & Wiggins, E. C. (1991). Cognitive responses in persuasion: Affective and evaluative determinants. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 27, 180-200.
Brown, G. (2004). Teachers’ conceptions of assessment: Implications for policy and professional development. Assessment in Education: Policy, Principles and Practice, 11(3), 301-318.
Brown, G. (2009). Teachers’ self-reported assessment practices and conceptions: Using structural equation modeling to examine measurement and structural models. In T. Teo, & M. S. Khire (Eds.), Structural equation modeling in educational research: Concepts and applications (pp. 234-266). Rotterdam, NL: Sense Publishers.
Brumen, M., Cagran, B., Coombe, S., Edmonds, M., Heckstall-Smith, E., & Fleming, P. (2009). Comparative assessment of young learners’ foreign language competences in three Eastern European countries. The University of Warwick in the situational repository.
Burns, A. (1999). Collaborative action research for English language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bryant, P. (1982). Collaborative Action Research: On the Cutting Edge. University of Lethbridge.
Caposey, P. J. (2013).Building a culture of support:Strategies for school leaders. Larnchmart, NY: Eye on Education
Casanova, V. (1989). Research and practice: We can integrate them. NEA Today, 7(6), 44-49.
Chambers, B & Pettman, J. (1986). Anti-Racism:a Handbook forAdult Educators. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Crookes, G. (1997). What influences what and how second and foreign language teachers teach? Modern Language Journal, 81, 67-79.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540 4781.1997.tb01627.x
Crookes, G., & Chandler, P. (2001). Introducing action research into post-secondary foreign language teacher education. Foreign Language Annals, 34 (2), 131-140. https://doi.org /10.1111/j.1944-9720.2001.tb02818.x
De Boer, A. , Pijl, S. J., & Minnaert, A. (2010). Regular primary schoolteachers' attitudes towards inclusive education: A review of the literature. International Journal of Inclusive Education. 15(3): 331-353. DOI: 10.1080/1360311090303008.
Dulčić, A., & Bakota, K. (2008). Stavovi učitelja povijesti redovnih osnovnih škola prema integriranim učenicima oštećena sluha i učenicima s poremećajima govorno-jezične komunikacije te specifičnim teškoćama u učenju. Hrvatska revija za rehabilitacijska istraživanja, 44(2), 31-50.
Elliott, J. (1991). Action research for educational change. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Ferreance, E. (2000). Themes in education action research. LAB Publication.
Ghazali, N., Yaakub, B., & Mustam, A. (2012). “Why do we need to change?” Teachers’ attitude towards school-based assessment system. SCR London’s First International Conference on Social science and Humanities in the Islamic World (28-30 May 2012).
Gonzales, R., & Aliponga, T. (2012). Classroom assessment preferences of Japanese language teachers in the Philippines and English language teachers in Japan. MEXTESOL Journal, 36(1).
Gungor, M. N. (2016). Turkish Pre-service Teachers' Reflective Practices in Teaching English to Young Learners. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 41(2), 137-151.http://www.momentumresearchgroup.com/glossary.phphttps://www.google.com/search?i=DNpeWtawI8mksgHsrLagAQ&q=action+research+definition&oq=action+research+definition&gs_l=psy-
Hadley, G. (2003). Action research in action. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional English Language Center.
Lacorte, M., & Krastel, T. (2002). Zapatero a tuszapatos? Action research in the Spanish language classroom. Hispania, 85, 907-917. https://doi.org/10.2307/4141259
Lord, C. G. (1997). Social psychology. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. Momentum Research Group. Retrieved from the world wide web on November 03, 2004.
Mehrani M. B. A narrative study of Iranian EFL teachers’ experiences of doing action research Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research 5(1), (Jan., 2017) 93-112.
Metin, M. (2011). The examinations of teachers’ attitude towards performance assessment with respect to the different variables. Energy Education Science and Technology Part B: Social and Educational Studies, 3(3), 269-284.
Nasrollahi M.A., K. N Krishnasamy & Mohd Noor (2014) Process of Implementing Critical Reading Strategies in an Iranian EFL Classroom: An Action Research. International Education Studies; Vol. 8, No. 1; 2015
Nogués, M. P. (2015). Becoming Reflective and Inquiring Teachers: Collaborative Action Research for In-service Chilean Teachers. Revista Electrónica de Investigación Educativa. Online google dictionary, Retrieved from the world wide web on January 15, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/elt.v8n7p46.
Rahmani D, V. (2014). A Quantitative Action Research on Promoting Confidence in a Foreign Language Classroom: Implications for Second Language Teachers. i.e.: inquiry in education:Vol. 5: Iss. 1, Article 3.
Rahmani Doqaruni V, Ghonsooly B, Pishghadam R.(2017)A Mixed Methods Research on Teachers' Beliefs about Action Research in Second Language Education.International Journal of Action Research _01 pp. 75-94
Sayer, P. (2005). An intensive approach to building conversation skills. ELT Journal, 59 (1), 14-22.https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/cci002
Shanks L. M. (2012). Action Research in a Professional Development School Setting to Support Teacher Candidate Self-Efficacy. STATE Journal.
Shaukat, S., Siddiquah, A., Abiodullah, M., & Rafaqat, A. (2014). Postgraduate Students’ Attitudes towards Research. Bulletin of Education and Research June, 36(1), 111-122.
Siragusa, L., & Dixon, K. (2008). Planned behavior: Student attitudes towards the use of ICT interactions in higher education. In Hello! Where are you in the landscape of educational technology? Proceedings ascilite Melbourne 2008. Retrieved May 3, 2013, from http://www.swaraunib.com/indra/Sistem%20informasi/TPB/siragusa.pdf
Tangdhanakanond, K., & Wongwanich, S. (2012). Teacher attitude and needs assessment concerning the use of student portfolio assessment in Thailand’s educational reform process. International Journal of Psychology, 10, 7-8.
Thu, T. (2009). The Interaction Hypothesis: A Literature Review. Alliant International University.
Tedick, D., & Walker, C. (1995). From theory to practice: How do we prepare teachers for second language classrooms? Foreign Language Annals, 28, 499-517.
Watt, H. (2005). Attitudes to the use of alternative assessment methods in Mathematics: A study with secondary mathematics teachers in Sydney, Australia. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 58, 21-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10649-005-3228-z.
Young, M. R., Rapp, E., & Murphy, J. W. (2010). Action research: enhancing classroom practice and fulfilling educational responsibilities. Journal of Instructional Pedagogies, 3(1), 1-10.
Young language learners. English Teaching & Learning, 32(4), 85-123.
Yu-Ching, C. (2008). Elementary school EFL teachers’ beliefs and practices of multiple assessments. Reflections on English Language Teaching, 7(1), 37-62.