Impact of Online Setting Collaboration through Strategy-Based Instruction on EFL Learners’ Self-efficacy and Oral Skills

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of English Language, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of English Language, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran


This study aimed to investigate the impact of web-based cooperative teaching through strategy-based instruction on EFL learners’ speaking and listening skills. Moreover, the use of cooperative teaching was hypothesized to have impact on the EFL learners’ self-efficacy. To this purpose, the study followed a mixed-methods design by implementing both qualitative and quantitative data gathering procedures through tests, questionnaire and interviews. The population of the study was made up of 48 EFL learners in a language institute in Kerman, a city in the south east of Iran. In order to collect data, four instruments were used: Cambridge Placement Test to homogenize the participants, pre- and post-listening and speaking tests, a questionnaire to estimate EFL learners’ self-efficacy and finally an interview. Based on the obtained results, it was revealed that the learners in the online group improved much more satisfactorily than those taught through traditional teaching procedures. It was, therefore, concluded that collaborative teaching strategies were effective in the web environment. Besides, meaningful relationships were observed between the use of the applied strategies and the oral skills. Furthermore, the results of the questionnaire clearly indicated the learners’ self-efficacy improvement from pre- to post-administration. Finally, the resulted obtained from the interview showed the positive effect of web-based cooperative and strategy teaching in the oral language class. In fact, majority of the learners in the online group clearly maintained that using collaboration in the web-environment could enhance their learning level. The findings of the study are of much help to language teachers who observe learning problems among their students. They can also assist learners who suffer from communicative difficulties in the situations where they have to collaborate with other groups and exchange ideas.


Aduwa-Ogiegbaen, S., & Iyamu, E. (2006). Factors affecting quality of English language teaching and learning in secondary schools in Nigeria. College Student Journal, 40, 495-504.
Afshar, H. S., & Asakereh, A. (2016). Speaking Skills Problems Encountered by Iranian EFL Freshmen and Seniors from Their Own and Their English Instructors’ Perspectives. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 13, 112–130.
Arnold, N., Ducate, L., & Kost, C. (2009). Collaborative writing in wikis. In: Lomicka, L. and Lord, G. (eds.).The next generation: Social networking and online collaboration in foreign language learning. CALICO Monograph Series, 8, 115-144.
Augar, N., Raitman, R., & Zhou, W. (2004). Teaching and learning online with wikis. ASCILITE. Retrieved from
Chang, M., & Goswami, J. S. (2011). Factors affecting the implementation of communicative language teaching in Taiwanese college English classes. English Language Teaching, 4, 3-12.
Chen, Z., & Goh, C. (2011). Teaching oral English in higher education: Challenges to EFL teachers. Teaching in Higher Education, 16, 333-345.
Chiu, T. L., Liou, H. C., & Yeh, Y. (2007). A study of web-based oral activities enhanced by automatic speech rec‌ognition for EFL college learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 20, 209-233.
Farhadi, H., Hezaveh, S. F., & Hedayati, H. (2010). Reflection on foreign language education in Iran. The Electronic Journal of English as a Second Language, 13, 1-18.
Forte, A., & Bruckman, A. (2006). From Wikipedia to the Classroom: Exploring Online Publication and Learning. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Learning Sciences, Bloomington, IN.
Garza, S. L., & Hern, T. (2006). Wiki as a Collaborative Writing Tool. Retrieved from
Ghoneim, N. M. M., & Elghotmy, H. E. A. (2016). Using Voice Thread to Develop Pre-Service Teachers' Speak‌ing Skills. 4, 13-31.
Han, B. (2006). Cooperative Learning Approach: An effective approach to improve oral English teaching in universities (Unpublished master’s thesis). Shandong Normal University Ji’nan, China,
Hojat, A., & Afghari, A. (2013). An investigation of speaking-associated problems from students and instructors perspectives. Iranian EFL Journal, 9, 9-31.
Kessler, G. (2009). Student-initiated attention to form in wiki-based collaborative writing. Language learning & Technology, 13, 79–95.
Lamb, B. (2004). Wide open spaces: Wiki, ready or not. Educause Review, 39, 36-48.
Li, Y., Gao, Y., & Zhang, D. (2016). To Speak Like a TED Speaker--A Case Study of TED Motivated English Public Speaking Study in EFL Teaching. Higher Education Studies, 6, 53-59.
Lin, W.-C., Shie, J.-S., & Holmes, P. (2017). Enhancing in‌tercultural communicative competence through online foreign language exchange: Taiwanese students’ experiences. Asian Journal of Applied Linguistic, 4, 73-88.
Lund, A. (2008). Wikis: a collective approach to language production. ReCALL, 20, 35–54.
Lund, A., & Smørdal, O. (2006). Is There Space for the Teacher in a Wiki? In: Proceedings of the 2006 International Symposium on Wikis. Odense, Denmark: ACM Press.
Mak, B., & Coniam, D. (2008). Using wikis to enhance and develop writing skills among secondary school students in Hong Kong. System, 36, 437–455.
Owston, R. (1997). The teaching Web: A guide to the World Wide Web for all teachers. Retrieved from
Peyghambarian, F., Ashraf, H., & Fatemi, M. A. (2014). The Effect of ‘’GO ENGLISH. ME’’A Virtual Learning Website on Lower Intermediate Iranian EFL Learners Speaking Ability. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 5, 234-238.
Shumin, K. (1997). Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice (I. J. C. Richards & W. A. Renandya Eds.). Cambridge: CUP.
Soureshjani, K. H., & Riahipour, P. (2012). Demotivating factors on English speaking skill: A study of English language learners and teachers’ attitudes. World Applied Sciences Journal, 17, 327–339.
Wang, T. (2007). The comparison of the difficulties between cooperative learning and traditional teaching methods in college English teachers. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, 3, 23–30.
Xuan, L. (2015). Application of co-operative learning approach: teachers’ and students’ perceptions towards co-operative learning (Master). Retrieved from https://dspace .sunyconnect. suny. edu/