Relationship Between Iranian EFL Teachers’ Self-Efficacy and Their Burnout Level in Universities and Schools

Document Type : Research Paper

Author

Department of English Language, Imam Hossein Comprehensive University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

In every field of teaching and learning, there are some factors that have an important role in both teachers’ and students’ performance. Two of these effective psychological factors in the context of education include self-efficacy and burnout. This research was conducted to examine the statistical relationship between English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers’ self-efficacy and burnout levels in the universities and schools of Iran. The data collection instruments were two questionnaires, ‘Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale’ and ‘Maslach Burnout Inventory’. The participants included 152 randomly selected teachers working in universities and schools. After data collection, the SPSS software was applied to convert the obtained data into numerical and interpretable data. To quantify the statistical relationship between teachers’ self-efficacy and burnout levels, correlational analysis was used. Results indicated, there was negative correlation between teachers’ self efficacy and burnout levels. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was conducted to estimate the relationship between self-efficacy and burnout better, which indicated that teachers’ self efficacy was a negative predictor of their burnout.

Keywords


Abednia, A. (2006). Developing a language teacher's sense of self-efficacy scale. (Unpublished master's thesis). Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
Atay, D. (2007). Beginning teacher efficacy and the practicum in an EFL context. Teacher Development, 11, 203-219
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for Constructing Self-Efficacy Scales. In Pajares, Frank, Urdan, T. C. Self-efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents. Greenwich, Conn.: IAP - Information Age Publishing.
Bolat, O. İ. (2011). Öz Yeterlilik ve Tükenmişlik İlişkisi: Lider-Üye Etkileşiminin Aracılık Etkisi. Ege Akademik Bakış, 11(2), 255-266.
Brackett, M. A., Palomera, R., Mojsa-Kaja, J., Reyes, M. R., Salovey, P. (2010). Emotion‐regulation ability, burnout, and job satisfaction among British secondary‐school teachers. Psychology in the Schools, 47, 406 - 417. 10.1002/pits.20478.
Brouwers, A., & Tomic, W. (2000). A longitudinal study of teacher burnout and perceived self-efficacy in classroom management. Teaching and Teacher education, 16(2), 239-253.
Byrne, B. M. (1991). Reexamining the factorial structure of the Maslach burnout inventory for elementary, intermediate, and secondary teachers: A cross- validated confirmatory factor analytic study. Ottawa, Canada: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 329 589)
Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Steca, P., & Malone, P. S. (2006). Teachers' self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of job satisfaction and students' academic achievement: A study at the school level. Journal of school psychology, 44(6), 473-490.
Chacon, C. T. (2005). Teachers’ perceived efficacy among English as a foreign language teacher in middle schools in Venezuela. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(3), 257-272.
Chwalisz, K.D., Altmaier, E.M. & Russell, D.W. (1992). Causal attributions, self-efficacy cognition, and coping with stress. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 11, 377–400.
Çelikkaleli, Ö. (2011). Yetişkin eğitimcisi öğretmenlerin tükenmişlik ve mesleki yetkinliklerinin incelenmesi. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 3(4): 38-53.
Collie, R. J., Shapka, J. D., & Perry, N. E. (2012). School climate and social–emotional learning: Predicting teacher stress, job satisfaction, and teaching efficacy. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(4), 1189.
Gibson, S., & Dembo, M. (1984). Teacher efficacy: A construct validation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 569-582.
Grayson, J. L., & Alvarez, H. K. (2008). School climate factors relating to teacher burnout: A mediator model. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(5), 1349-1363.
Gross, J. J. (2002). Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology, 39(3), 281-291.
Gurvitch, R., & Metzler, M. W. (2009). The effects of laboratory-based and field based practicum experience on pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(3), 437-443.
Henson, R. K., Kogan, L. R., & Vacha-Haase, T. (2001). A reliability generalization study of the teacher efficacy scale and related instruments. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 61(3), 404-420.
Hoy, A. W. (2000) Changes in teacher efficacy during the early years of teaching. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans.
Huberman, A. M., & Vandenberghe, R. (1999). Introduction: Burnout and the teaching profession. In R. Vandenberghe & A. M. Huberman (Eds.), Understanding and preventing teacher burnout: A sourcebook of international research and practice (pp. 1-11). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jennett, H. K., Harris, S. L., & Mesibov, G. B. (2003). Commitment to philosophy, teacher efficacy, and burnout among teachers of children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 583–593
Johnson, S., Cooper, C., Cartwright, S., Donald, I., Taylor, P., & Millet, C. (2005). The experience of work-related stress across occupations. Journal of managerial psychology, 20(2), 178-187.
Karahan, Ş. & Balat, G.U. (2011). Özel eğitim okullarında çalışan eğitimcilerin öz-yeterlik algılarının ve tükenmişlik düzeylerinin incelenmesi. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 29(1), 1-14.
Kerry-Henkel, L. (2017). Teacher burnout, self-efficacy, and the identification and referral of at-risk students. (Published master's thesis). The University of Arizona,http://hdl.handle. Net/10150/625374
Kokkinos, C.M. (2007). Job stressors, personality and burnout in primary school teachers. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 229–243.
Liaw, E. C. (2009). Teacher efficacy of pre-service teaches in Taiwan: The influence of classroom teaching and group discussions. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(1), 176-180.
Lodico, M.G., Spaulding, D.T. & Voegtle, K.H. (2006). Methods in Educational Research. John Wiley&Sons, San Francisco.
Maslach, C. (1999). Progress in understanding teacher burnout. In R. Vandenberghe & A. M. Huberman (Eds.), Understanding and preventing teacher burnout: A sourcebook of international research and practice (pp. 211-222). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Maslach, C. (2015). Psychology of burnout. International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 929-932.
Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W.B. & Leiter, M.P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397-422.
Moradkhani, S. (2009). The effect of novice English teachers’ self-efficacy and academic degree on students’ achievement (Unpublished master's thesis). Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
Pajares, F. (1997). Current directions in self-efficacy research. Advances in motivation and achievement, 10(149), 1-49.
Safari, I., Davaribina, M. & Khoshnevis, I. (2020). The Influence of EFL Teachers’ Self-Efficacy, Job Satisfaction and Reflective Thinking on their Professional Development: A Structural Equation Modeling. Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science, 13, 27-40. 10.7160/eriesj.2020.130103.
Shidler, L. (2008). The impact of time spent coaching for teacher efficacy on student achievement. Early Childhood Education Journal, 36(5), 453-460.
Shirom, A., & Melamed, S. (2006). A comparison of the construct validity of two burnout measures in two groups of professionals. International Journal of Stress Management, 13(2), 176.
Skaalvik, E. M., Skaalvik, S. (2007). Dimensions of Teacher Self-efficacy and Relations with Strain Factors, Perceived Collective Teacher Efficacy, and Teacher Burnout. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(3), 611-625. Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2009). Does School Context Matter? Relations with Teacher Burnout and Job Satisfaction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25,518-524.http :// dx. doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2008.12.006 Schwarzer, R., & Hallum, S. (2008). Perceived Teacher Self-Efficacy as a Predictor of Job Stress and Burnout: Mediation Analysis. Applied Psychology, 57, 152-171. http://dx.doi.org /10 .1111/j.1464-0597.2008.00359.x
Tschannen-Moran, M. & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing and elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 783-805.
Tschannen-Moran, M., Woolfolk Hoy, A. & Hoy, W. K. (1998). Teacher efficacy: Its meaning and measure. Review of Educational Research, 68, 202-248.
Wheatley, K. F. (2005). The case for re-conceptualizing teacher efficacy research. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(7), 747-766.
Wright, S. P., Hom, S. P., & Sanders, W. L. (1997). Teacher and classroom context effects on student achievement: Implications for teacher evaluation. Journal of Personal Evaluation and Education, 11, 57-67.