Investigating the Relationship among Iranian EFL Teachers’ Self-regulation, Effective Teaching, Gender, and Teaching Experience

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

Department of English, Neyshabur Branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur, Iran

Abstract

The main purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between EFL teachers’ self-regulatory trait and effective teaching. Furthermore, the study aimed to find out the relationship between EFL teachers’ self-regulatory trait with some demographics such as gender and years of teaching experience. The participants were 85 EFL male and female teachers between the age ranges of 27 to 52. In addition, 200 male and female high school students between the age ranges of 15 to 17 participated in this study. Self-regulatory trait of the teachers was explored through Teacher Self-regulation Scale (TSR) questionnaire and the qualities of successful Iranian EFL teachers were explored through Qualities of Successful Iranian EFL Teachers’ Questionnaire (QSIET). Empirical analysis revealed that no significant relationship existed between teachers' gender and their self-regulatory trait. However, a significant relationship was found between teachers' self-regulatory trait and years of teaching. The implications of this study can be practical and useful for EFL teachers, who eagerly try to improve their teaching qualifications as well as teacher-training courses. The findings can be also helpful for language teaching designers to design proper syllabuses and materials for language teaching.

Keywords


Babai S., H., & Sadeghi, K. (2009). Characteristics of an effective English language teacher as perceived by Iranian teachers and learners of English. World Journal of Education, 2(4), 130-142.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioural change.Psychological Review, 84 (2), 191-215.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28 (2), 117-148.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman.
Bandura, A. (2000). Exercise of human agency through collective efficacy. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9(3), 75-78. Delfino, M., Dettori, G., & Persico, D. (2010). An online course fostering self-regulation of trainee teachers. Psicothema, 22(2), 299–305.
Dembo, M.H. (2001). Learning to teach is not enough – future teachers also need to learn how to learn. Teacher Education Quarterly, 28, 23–35. Dignath, C., & Büttner, G. (2008). Components of fostering self-regulated learning among students. A meta-analysis on intervention studies at primary and secondary school level. Metacognition & Learning, 3, 231–264. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-008-9029-x.
El. Henawy, M., A. , El. Dadour , M.Salem, M. M. , J. M. , & El- Bassuony, J. M. (2010) , Self-Regulated Learning in English Language Instruction, The First International Conference, College of Education, Port Said University (27-28). Ghanizadeh, A. (2011).An investigation into the relationship between self-regulation and critical thinking among Iranian EFL teachers, Journal of Technology of Education, 5 (3), 213-220.
Ghanizadeh, A., & Moafian, F. (2011). The relationship between Iranian EFL teachers’ sense of self-efficacy and their pedagogical success in Language Institutes. Asian EFL Journal, 13 (2), 249-272.
Ghonsooli, B., &Ghanizadeh, A.(2011) Self-efficacy and self-regulation and their relationship among Iranian EFL teachers. Language Learning Journal, 38(2), 185-215
Gibson, S., &Dembo, M. (1984). Teacher efficacy: a construct validation. Journal ofEducational Psychology, 76(4), 569-582.
Hawkins, J., Catalano, R., & Miller, J. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 64-105.
Hiebert, Morris, Berk and Jansen (2007).Preparing Teachers to Learn from Teaching, Journal of Teacher Education 58(1), 47-61. DOI: 10.1177/0022487106295726
Howse, R. B., Lange, G., Farran, D. C., & Boyles, C. D. (2003).Motivation and self-regulation as predictors of achievement in economically disadvantaged youngchildren. Journal of Experimental Education, 71(2), 151–174.
Jeremey, R. (1995). Learning in interactive environments: Prior knowledge and new experience. In J.F. Falk &L. D. Dierking (Eds.), Public institutions for personal learning: Establishing a research agenda (pp.37-51).Washington, D.C, IN: Amer Assn of Museums.
Kanfer, F.H. (1970). Self-regulation, issues and speculation. In C. Neuringer& J. L. Michael (Eds.), Behavior modification in clinical psychology (pp. 178-220). New York: Appleton-Century- Crofts. Kurt, S. (2019). Social Learning Theory: Albert Bandura, Educational Technology, Retrieved from https://educationaltechnology.net/social-learning-theory-albert-bandura/
Kyriacou, C. (2001). Teacher stress: Directions for future research. Educational Review, 53(1), 27-35.
Kyriakides, L., Campbell, R. J., & Christofidou, E. (2002). Generating criteria for measuring teacher effectiveness through a self-evaluation approach: A complementary way of measuring teacher effectiveness. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 13(3), 291-325.
Milner, H.R. (2002).A case study of an experienced English teacher’s self-efficacy and persistence through ‘Crisis’ situations: Theoretical and practical considerations. High School Journal, 86(1), 28 36.
MonshiToussi, M. T., Boori, A., &Ghanizadeh, A.(2011).The role of EFL teachers' self-regulation in effective teaching. World Journal of Education, 2(11), 2363-2371.
Murray, D. W., & Rosanbalm, K. (2017). Promoting self-regulation in adolescents and young adults: A practice brief. OPRE Report #2015-82. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Panadero, E. (2017). A review of self-regulated learning: Six models and four directions for research. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 422.
Pettis, J. (1997). Developing our professional competence; some reflections. TESL Canada Journal, 16(2), 67-71.
Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekarts, P.R. Pintrich & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation (pp. 451-502). San Diego & London: Academic Press.
Randi, J. (2004). Teachers as self-regulated learners. Retrieved fromhttp://fi les.eric.ed.gov /fulltext / ED687693.pdf
Sahan, H. S. (2009). Teachers' changing roles and their self-evaluation regarding roles expected of them by the renewed curricula. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 2738-2747.
Schon, D.A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner. American Educational Research Journal, 22, 514-624.
Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2007). Influencing children’s self-efficacy and self-regulation of reading and writing through modeling. B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk, (Eds.), Educational psychology: One-hundred years of contributions(pp.1-47). Mahwah, IN: Lawrence Earlbaum.
Stoeber, J. &Rennert, D. (2008). Perfectionism in school teachers: relations with stress appraisals, coping styles, and burnout. Retrieved from http//files.PubMed.gov/ fulltext /ED18027123.pdf
Suwandee, A. (1997). Students' Perceptions of University Instructors' EffectiveTeaching characteristics. Chicago, Mahidol University.
Yesim, C.A., Sungur, S., &Uzuntiryaki, E. (2009). Teacher self-regulation: examining a multidimensional construct. Educational Psychology, 29(3), 345–356.
Weinstein, C. E., Husman, J., & Dierking, D. R. (2000). Self-regulation interventions with a focus on learning strategies. In M. Boekarts, P.R. Pintrich & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation (pp. 727-747). San Diego & London: Academic Press. Wheeler, J. V. & McLeod, P. L. (2002). Expanding our Teaching Effectiveness: Understanding our Responses to “In-The-Moment” Classroom Events. Management Faculty Publications. 14, https://scholarworks.bgsu.edu/management_pub
Zimmerman, B. J., (1990). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: an overview. Educational Psychologist 25(1), 3-17.
Zimmerman B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: a social cognitive perspective, in Handbook of Self-Regulation , Boekaerts M., Pintrich P. R., Zeidner M.. (eds.) , San Diego, CA: Academic Press , 13–40. 10.1016/b978-012109890-2/50031-7
Zimmerman, B. J. (2008).Motivation and self-regulated learning: Theory, research, and application. Mahwan, Lawrence Erlbaum.
Zimmerman B. J. (2013). From cognitive modeling to self-regulation: a social cognitive career path. Educ. Psychol. 48, 135–147. 10.1080/00461520.2013.794676
Zimmerman, B. J., Bonner, S.,& Kovach, R. (2002). Developing self-regulated learners.Washington, DC,American Psychological Association.
Zimmerman, B. J., & Campillo, M. (2003). Motivating self-regulated problems solvers.Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press.
Zimmerman, B. J., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1986). Development of a structured interview for assessing student use of self-regulated learning strategies. American Educational Research Journal, 23(4), 614-628.
Zimmerman, B., Bonner, S., & Kovach, R. (2002). Developing self-regulated learners: Beyond achievement to self-efficacy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.