Iranian EFL Learners’ Understanding of Ubiquitous Learning: Examining Factors Affecting L2 Learner’s Classroom Achievement Using Structural Equation Modeling

Document Type : Research Paper


English Language Department, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran


Ubiquitous learning can be described as a daily learning environment supported by mobile, computers, and wireless networks to provide learning anytime and anywhere. As the concept of Ubiquitous learning is little known in Iran, this study considers a sample of Iranian EFL learners to identify the effects of different aspects of Ubiquitous learning including omnipresence, context customization, interactivity, perceived self-efficacy, and m-learning motivation that influence L2 learner’s classroom achievement. The participants included 150 high school students in Shiraz. A questionnaire adapted from Jung (2014) was the main data collection instrument used in the present study. Moreover, classroom achievement scores of the students taken from their final exam results were also analyzed. Structural equation modeling results showed that among aspects of Ubiquitous learning, omnipresence, context customization, perceived self-efficacy, and m-learning motivation affected classroom achievement but interactivity did not influence classroom achievement. The results also revealed the positive effect of integration of technology on student learning. EFL learners with a clear understanding of innovation in education are better positioned to move their efficiency and effectiveness from the traditional English learning environment to one that fully integrates learning into learners’ daily routines. The study concludes that developments in technology need to be transmitted into the pedagogical areas and carefully considered in the forms of curriculum and contents for language teaching.