Impact of Synchronous Approach on the Development of Iranian EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Knowledge: Students’ and Teachers’ Attitude in Focus
DOR: 20.1001.1.23223898.2021.

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Foreign Languages, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


The main purpose of this study was to find out the effects of synchronous (online) approaches on Iranian EFL learners’ vocabulary development and attitude. To this end, a population of 75 homogeneous students studying in Iranmehr English Language Institute, cooperated as participants. As for the collection of the needed data, a blended learning questionnaire was employed, The collected data were analyzed through one-way ANOVA and independent-samples t-test. The results displayed that there was a significant difference between synchronous and conventional methods of learning vocabulary in reading context. They also revealed that synchronous approach provided the learners with a chance to get the teachers’ feedback immediately, and take part in learning and self-monitoring process of their progress actively. The results also indicated that students and teachers view synchronous approaches as more effective than the conventional approach, and thus can assist language teachers to make a more creative learning atmosphere and ease the learning processes in terms of vocabulary retention and use.


Abrams, Z. I. (2003). The effect of synchronous and asynchronous CMC on oral performance in German. The Modern Language Journal, 87(2), 157-167.
Alhazbi, S. (2016). Using flipped classroom approach to teach computer gaming. TALE, 441-444.
Alshwiah, A. A. S. (2009). The Effects of a Blended Learning Strategy in Teaching Vocabulary on Premedical Students' Achievement, Satisfaction and Attitude toward English Language. Online Submission.
Anderson, T. (2008). The theory and practice of online learning: Athabasca University Press.
Binkai, J. (2012). An Empirical Study on Corpus-driven English Vocabulary Learning in China. English Language Teaching, 5, 131-137. doi: 10.5539/elt.v5n4p131
Chang, C.-C., Shu, K.-M., Liang, C., Tseng, J.-S., & Hsu, Y.-S. (2014). Is blended e-learning as measured by an achievement test and self-assessment better than traditional classroom learning for vocational high school students? International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 15(2), 213-231.
Cleveland-Innes, M., & Wilton, D. (2018). Guide to Blended Learning. Burnaby, British Columbia: COMMONWEALTH OF LEARNING.
Cooney, M. H., Gupton, P., & O’Laughlin, M. (2000). Blurring the lines of play and work to create blended classroom learning experiences. Early Childhood Education Journal, 27(3), 165-171.
Dastjerdi, H. V. (2011). An investigation into the impact of traditional vs. blended teaching on EFL learners’ vocabulary acquisition: M-Learning in focus. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science.
Gorjian, B., Alipour, M., & Saffarian, R. (2012). The effect of multisensory techniques on reading comprehension among pre-intermediate EFL learners: The case of gender. Advances in Asian Social Science, 1(2), 192-196.
Grishaeva, A. (2015). The use of blended learning in teaching foreign languages to students of non-linguistic specialties. TSPU Bulletin, 4 (157), 70-74.
Hrastinski, S. (2008). Asynchronous and synchronous e-learning. Educause quarterly, 31(4), 51-55.
Hubackova, S., Semradova, I., & Klimova, B. F. (2011). Blended Learning In A Foreign Language Teaching. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 28, 281-285. doi:
Kaya, T. (2006). The effectiveness of adaptive computer use for learning vocabulary: Northern Arizona University.
Li, J. (2010). Learning vocabulary via computer-assisted scaffolding for text processing. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 23(3), 253-275.
Lin, Z. (2002). Discovering EFL learners’ perception of prior knowledge and its role in reading comprehension. Journal of Research in Reading, 25(2), 172-190.
Lu, M. (2008). Effectiveness of vocabulary learning via mobile phone. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24(6), 515-525. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2729.2008.00289.x
Marsh, D. (2012). Blended learning: Creating learning opportunities for language learners. Retrieved April, 20, 2015.
Nguyen, T. T. H., & Khuat, T. T. N. (2003). The effectiveness of learning vocabulary through games. Asian EFL Journal Quarterly, 5(4), 238-245.
Osguthorpe, R. T., & Graham, C. R. (2003). Blended learning environments: Definitions and directions. Quarterly review of distance education, 4(3), 227-233.
Pazio, M. (2010). Blended learning and its potential in expanding vocabulary knowledge: A case study. Teaching English with Technology, 10(1), 3-30.
Precel, K., Eshet-Alkalai, Y., & Alberton, Y. (2009). Pedagogical and design aspects of a blended learning course. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 10(2).
Roblyer, M., Freeman, J., Donaldson, M. B., & Maddox, M. (2007). A comparison of outcomes of virtual school courses offered in synchronous and asynchronous formats. The Internet and Higher Education, 10(4), 261-268.
Seaman, J. E., Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2018). Grade Increase: Tracking Distance Education in the United States. Babson Park, MA: Babson Survey Research Group.
Shahriarpour, N. (2014). On the effect of playing digital games on Iranian intermediate EFL learners’ motivation toward learning English vocabularies. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 1738-1743.
Smidt, E., & Hegelheimer, V. (2004). Effects of Online Academic Lectures on ESL Listening Comprehension, Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition, and Strategy Use. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 17(5), 517-556. doi: 10.1080/0958822042000319692
Tseng, H., & Walsh, Jr., EJ. (2015). BLENDED VERSUS TRADITIONAL COURSE DELIVERY: Comparing Students' Motivation, Learning Outcomes, and Preferences Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 17 (1), 43-52.
Tu, Y. (2015). A Case Study of High School Chinese as a Foreign Language Blended Program. University of Kansas.  
Voci, E., & Young, K. (2001). Blended learning working in a leadership development programme. Industrial and commercial training.
Zhang, H., Song, W., & Burston, J. (2011). Reexamining the effectiveness of vocabulary learning via mobile phones. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 10(3), 203-214. 
Volume 9, Issue 36 - Serial Number 36
1400- تابستان
July 2021
Pages 91-103
  • Receive Date: 22 June 2020
  • Revise Date: 27 September 2020
  • Accept Date: 27 November 2020
  • First Publish Date: 27 March 2021