English Language Learning and Reasoning Ability in Iranian Primary Schools: An Urgent Need for Curriculum Reappraisal
DOR: 20.1001.1.23223898.2021.9.36.8.4

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of English Language, Qeshm Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qeshm, Iran

2 Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

3 Research center for behavioral and neurosciences, School of medicine, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran

Abstract

Advantages of language teaching and learning in foreign contexts are undisputable. This study intended to check if Reasoning Ability (RA), as a promoted cognitive skill which is emphasized not only in the field of education, but also as an important element of most professions, is cognitively enhanced along with English language learning. To this end, a sample of Iranian primary school children, aged 5-8 years, were selected through purposive sampling and divided into thtree groups; that is, monolingual, bilingual, and limited bilingual children, in order to investigate their RA enhancement during early formal education. Also, a researcher-made psychometric test was used to measure quantitative, visual, nonverbal, matrix, and abstract reasoning of the sample during early primary school education. The results of the analyzed data indicated that the bilingual group outperformed the monolingual and the limited bilingual children in matrix, visual, abstract reasoning and logical thinking. The findings of the study can be used by educational policymakers to reconsider the primary school curriculum, and through holding workshops on streghthening national and religious values help English language instructors to unravel related problems.

Keywords


Adesope, O. O., Lavin, T., Thompson, T., & Ungerleider, C. (2010). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the cognitive correlates of bilingualism. Review of Educational Research, 80(2), 207-245.
Adi‐Japha, E., Berberich‐Artzi, J., & Libnawi, A. (2010). Cognitive flexibility in drawings of bilingual children. Child development, 81(5), 1356-1366.
Akhtar, N., & Menjivar, J. A. (2012). Cognitive and linguistic correlates of early exposure to more than one language. Advances in child development and behavior, 42, 41-78.
Askari, M., Fazeli, R., Khademali, M., Aghaee, F., & Piroozan, A. (2019). Comparison of the impact of second language acquisition and Parent Management Training on attention control among kindergartners with Attention Deficiency and Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Biochemical Technology, 10(3), 28-33.
Baker, C. (2006). Foundations of bilingualism. In: Clevedon, UK: Mulilingual Matters.
Baker, C. (2011). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism (Vol. 79): Multilingual matters.
Berger, K. S. (2004). The Developing Person Through the Life Span, 6e.
Bhatia, T. K., & Ritchie, W. C. (2008). The handbook of bilingualism: John Wiley & Sons.
Bialystok, E. (1999). Cognitive complexity and attentional control in the bilingual mind. Child development, 70(3), 636-644.
Bialystok, E. (2001). Bilingualism in development: Language, literacy, and cognition: Cambridge University Press.
Bialystok, E. (2005). Consequences of bilingualism for cognitive development. Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches, 417-432.
Bialystok, E. (2013). The Impact of Bilingualism on Language and Literacy Development. The Handbook of Bilingualism and Multilingualism, 624.
Bialystok, E., Martin, M. M., & Viswanathan, M. (2005). Bilingualism across the lifespan: The rise and fall of inhibitory control. International Journal of Bilingualism, 9(1), 103-119.
Bruner, J. S. (1964). The course of cognitive growth. American psychologist, 19(1), 1.
Burt, C. (1922). The development of reasoning in children. Experimental psychology and child study, vi, 122. doi:10.1037/13550-008
Carroll, R. (2005). Becoming a critical thinker: A guide for the new millennium: Pearson Custom Pub.
Chomsky, N. (2014). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (Vol. 11): MIT press.
Clark, H. H., & Begun, J. S. (1968). The use of syntax in understanding sentences. British Journal of Psychology, 59(3), 219-229.
Cummins, J. (1976). The Influence of Bilingualism on Cognitive Growth: A Synthesis of Research Findings and Explanatory Hypotheses. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 9.
Cummins, J. (1978). Bilingualism and the development of metalinguistic awareness. Journal of cross-cultural psychology, 9(2), 131-149.
Diaz, R. M. (1983). Chapter 2: Thought and two languages: The impact of bilingualism on cognitive development. Review of research in education, 10(1), 23-54.
Eva, K. W., Armson, H., Holmboe, E., Lockyer, J., Loney, E., Mann, K., & Sargeant, J. (2012). Factors influencing responsiveness to feedback: on the interplay between fear, confidence, and reasoning processes. Advances in health sciences education, 17(1), 15-26.
Heyman, G. D. (2008). Children's critical thinking when learning from others. Current directions in psychological science, 17(5), 344-347.
Johnston, B. (2003). Values in English language teaching: Routledge.
Kail, R. V. (2007). Longitudinal evidence that increases in processing speed and working memory enhance children's reasoning. Psychological science, 18(4), 312.
Keeley, S. M., & Browne, M. N. (2007). Asking the right questions: A guide to critical thinking.
Kramsch, C. (1993). Context and culture in language teaching: Oxford University Press.
Landsberry, L. (2019). Defining Bilingualism.
Mehler, J. (1963). Some effects of grammatical transformations on the recall of English sentences. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 2(4), 346-351.
Merrikhi, P. (2011). The Effect of" Bilingualism" on Iranian ELT Student's" Critical thinking ability"(CT). Theory & Practice in Language Studies, 1(10).
Miller, G. A. (1962). Some psychological studies of grammar. American psychologist, 17(11), 748.
Millones, D. M., Flores-Mendoza, C., & Rivalles, R. M. (2015). Intelligence in Peru: Students' results in Raven and its relationship to SES. Intelligence, 51, 71-78.
Mirzoyeva, L., Shaibakova, D., & Meiramova, S. (2015). Critical Thinking Development In Course Of Teaching Russian In Kazakhstan.
Peal, E., & Lambert, W. E. (1962). The relation of bilingualism to intelligence. Psychological Monographs: general and applied, 76(27), 1.
Piaget, J. (1970). Piaget's theory.
Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1969). The psychology of the child (Vol. 5001): Basic books.
Piattelli-Palmarini, M. (1980). Language and learning: the debate between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky.
Piroozan, A., Razmjoo, S. A., & Namazi, S. (2019). Cognitive Ability of Reasoning among Preschool and Early Primary School Students: The Proper Psychometric Test and Some of the Influencing Factors. Iranian Evolutionary and Educational Psychology Journal, 1(4), 295-309.
Richardson, K. (1991). Reasoning with Raven—in and out of context. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 61(2), 129-138.
Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (1981). Bilingualism or not: The education of minorities (Vol. 7): Multilingual Matters.
Sulik, A. A. (2020). Philosophy on bilingual education: Sociocultural competence and Identity. Educational Dimension, 54(2), 198-212.
Swain, M. (2013). The inseparability of cognition and emotion in second language learning. Language Teaching, 46(2), 195-207.
Tipper, S. P., & McLaren, J. (1990). Evidence for efficient visual selectivity in children. In Advances in psychology (Vol. 69, pp. 197-210): Elsevier.
Wechsler, D. (2008). Wechsler adult intellignece scale: technical and Interpretive manual. In: San Antonio, TX, USA: Pearson Education, Inc.
Wechsler, D. (2003). Wechsler intelligence scale for children–Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Volume 9, Issue 36 - Serial Number 36
1400- تابستان
July 2021
Pages 105-114
  • Receive Date: 11 July 2020
  • Revise Date: 20 October 2020
  • Accept Date: 09 December 2020
  • First Publish Date: 27 March 2021