A Reflection on How EFL Teachers in Iran Feel About Their Education: A Modular Model (KARDS) Perspective
DOR: 20.1001.1.23223898.2021.

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of English Language Studies and Applied Linguistics, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


This research reports on how EFL teachers feel about their education based on knowing, analyzing, recognizing, doing, and seeing (KARDS) modular model. The researcher employed convenient sampling to choose 15 teachers. Due to the closure of schools in the pandemic era and the online nature of courses, English teachers are only available online or in meetings at the university. A KARDS questionnaire was used to record the teachers’ views. The questionnaire was researcher-made and it was either handed in the meetings or sent via e-mail or other routes. The data gathered showed that though the English teachers had the knowledge necessary about their jobs, most of them lacked the necessary insight required in terms of the 5 modules of education in L2 teaching. The data seem to imply that ELT education programs in Iran are mostly oriented towards teacher training, rather than teacher education.


Borg, S. (1999). Studying teacher cognition in second language grammar teaching. System, 27(1), 19-31.
Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in grammar teaching: A literature review. Language Awareness, 12(2), 96-108.
Freire, P. (2005). Teachers as cultural workers: Letters to teachers who dare teach.Cambridge: Westview Press.
Giroux, H. A. (1992). Border crossings: Cultural workers and the politics of education. New York: Routledge.
Johnson, K. E. (2006). The sociocultural turn and its challenges for second language teacher education. TESOL Quarterly, 40(1), 235-257
Johnson, K. E. (2009). Second language teacher education: A sociocultural perspective. New York: Routledge.
Johnson, K. E., & Golombek, P. R. (Eds.). (2011). Research on second language teacher education: A sociocultural perspective on professional development. New York: Routledge.
Kohonen, V. (1997). Authentic assessment as an integration of language learning, teaching, evaluation and the teacher’s professional growth. In A. Huhta, V. Kohonen, L. Kurki-Suonio, & S. Luoma (Eds.), Current developments and alternatives in language assessment: Proceedings of LTRC 96 (pp. 7-22). Finland: University of Jyväsk
Kumaravadivelu, B. (2003). Beyond methods: Macrostrategies for language teaching. New Jersey: Yale University Press.
Kumaravadivelu, B. (2006). Understanding language teaching: From method to post method. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kumaravadivelu, B. (2012). Language teacher education for a global society: A modular model for knowing, analyzing, recognizing, doing, and seeing. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Kelchtermans, G. (1993). Getting the story, understanding the lives: From career stories to teachers’ professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 9(5/6), 443-456.
King, E. T. (2013). Review of language teacher education for a global society: A modular model for knowing, analyzing, recognizing, doing, and seeing. TESL-EJ, 16(4).
Li, L. (2017). Social Interaction and Teacher Cognition. London: Edinburgh University Press.
Nguyen, H. T. (2008). Conceptions of teaching by five Vietnamese American pre-service teachers. Journal of Language, Identity and Education, 7(2), 113-136.
Potter, J., & Edwards, D. (1999). Social representations and discursive psychology: From cognition to action. Culture & Psychology, 5(4), 447-458.
Singh, G., & Richards, J. C. (2006). Teaching and learning in the language teacher education course room: A critical sociocultural perspective. RELC Journal, 37(2), 149-175.
Stein, P. (2004). Re-sourcing resources: Pedagogy, history and loss in a Johannesburg classroom. In M. R. Hawkins (Ed.), Language learning and teacher education: A sociocultural approach. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Toohey, K., & Waterstone, B. (2004). Negotiating expertise in an action research community. In B. Norton & K. Toohey (Eds.), Critical pedagogies and language learning (pp. 291- 310). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Volume 9, Issue 37 - Serial Number 37
October 2021
Pages 185-194
  • Receive Date: 05 January 2021
  • Revise Date: 14 March 2021
  • Accept Date: 10 April 2021
  • First Publish Date: 14 May 2021