Impact of Motivational Scaffolding on Self-Determination and Learning Achievement of Field-Dependent/Independent EFL Learners

Document Type : Research Paper


English Department, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran


The present study investigated the effects of motivational scaffolding on self-determination and learning achievement of field-dependent/independent Iranian EFL learners. To this purpose, quantitative data were elicited and analyzed from 60 intermediate learners who participated in the study as experimental and control groups. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) was administered to categorize the learner participants into field-dependent and field-independent learners. Then, the scaffold design proposed by Belland et al. was presented to the experimental group, while the control group got all tests and questionnaires with no scaffolding. At the end of 8 training sessions, a self-determination questionnaire was administered to both groups, and then a post-test was applied to examine the impact of scaffolding on learners’ achievement. The statistical analysis of the elicited data showed that the learners’ interaction within motivational scaffolding improved their self-determination and their learning achievement. The findings of the study have implications for teachers and learners in educational settings and help them to detect possible factors affecting EFL learners’ language performance.


Ahmady, A. & Yamini, M. (2003). Relationship between field dependence/ independence and
listening comprehension strategy used by female Iranian English majors.Journal of faculty of letters and humanities, 46(187), 61- 72.
Al Eissa, A. A. & Al-Bargi, A.  (2017). The Impact of Scaffolding Strategies in Enhancing Reading Comprehension Skills of University Students in a Saudi Context.  International Journal of Linguistics, 9(5). Available online at https://  doi.: 10.5296 /ijl.v9i5.11798.
Ali, R. (2015). Impact of scaffolding on complexity and accuracy of Iranian EFL learners'  narrative writing. Language Teaching, 5(2), 143-156.
Alias, N. A. (2012). Design of a Motivational Scaffold for the Malaysian e-Learning Environment. Educational Technology & Society, 15(1), 137–151.
Alomyan, H. (2004). Exploration of Instructional Strategies and Individual Differences within the Context of Web-Based Learning. International Education Journal, 4(4), 86-91.
Askarzadeh Torghabeh, R. & Yazdanmehr, E. (2020). Gifted and Non-gifted Iranian EFL Students' Goal-orientation, Motivation and L2 Achievement: A Comparative Study. Asian EFL Journal Research Articles, 27(4.6), 57-75.
Aslam, N., Khanam, A., Fatima, H. G., Akbar, H. and Muhammad, N. (2018). Study of the Impact of Scaffold Instructions on the Learning Achievements of Post-Graduate Students. Journal of Art and Social Sciences, 4(1), p.3. Available at : Html [ Accessed 2018].
Belland, R. B., Kim, C. M., and Hannafin, M. J. (2013).  A Framework for Designing Scaffolds that Improve Motivation and Cognition. Educational Psychologist, 48(4), 243-270. doi: 10. 1080/ 00461520.2013.838920.
Bogges, J. A. (2019). Effects of teacher-scaffolded and self-scaffolded corrective feedback compared to direct corrective feedback on grammatical accuracy in English L2 writing. Journal of Second language writing, 46,100671. Available at:,doi:org/10.1016/ j.jslw. 2019.100671 .
Chatzisarantis, N. L. D. & Hagger, M. S. (2007). Advances in self-determination theory research in sport and exercise. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8(5), 597-599. doi: 10.1016 /j.psychsport.
Chen, C. H. & Law, V. (2016). Scaffolding individual and collaborative game-based learning in learning performance and intrinsic motivation. Computers in Human Behavior. Available online at doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.03.010.
Chen, S. (2018). An Empirical Study of Scaffolding Instruction in ESP Teaching. The Asian ESP Journal, 14(4), 120-137.
Chirkov, V. I. (2009). A cross cultural analysis of autonomy in education, Self- determination theory perspective. Theory and Education, 7(2), 253-262. Available at: https:// journals .sagepub. com/doi/10.1177/1477878509104330.
Cocca, M. & Cocca, A. (2019). Affective Variables and Motivation as Predictors of Proficiency in English as a Foreign Language, Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science, 12(3), 75-83.
Deci, E. L. & Ryan R. M. (2000). The “What” and “Why” of Goal Pursuits: Human Needs and the Self-Determination of Behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227–268.
Efklides, A. (2008). Metacognition: Defining its facets and levels of functioning in relation to self-regulation and co-regulation. European Psychologist, 13(4), 277-287.
Eisenman, L. T. (2007). Self-Determination Interventions, Building a Foundation for School Completion. Remedial and Special Education, 28(1), pp. 2-8.
Ellis, R. (1996). The Study of Second Language Acquisition. 2th ed. Oxford: Oxford university press.
Geetanjali (2006). A Study of academic achievement in relation to cognitive styles and hemisphericity at secondary stage. M.S. India, Guru Nanak University.
Hammond, J. & Gibbons, P. (2005). Putting scaffolding to work: The contribution of scaffolding in articulating ESL education. National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research, 20 (1), 6-30.
Hasan, M. (2018). Impact of Motivational Scaffolding on the Acquisition of Writing Skills in L2 Situation. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention (IJHSSI), 7(12), 39-45.
Hui, E. K. P. & Tsang, S. K. M. (2012). Self-Determination as a Psychological and Positive Youth Development Construct. The Scientific World Journal, [online]. doi:10.1100/2012/759358.
Jumaat, N. F. & Tasir, Z. (2015). Metacognitive Scaffolding to Support Students in Learning Authoring System Subject. International Conference on Learning and Teaching in Computing and Engineering. [online] Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 87-90. Available at: http://www. Researchgate. net/ publication/279854637.
Kumar, T. (2020). Impact of motivation and group cohesion in EFL Classrooms at Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, KSA. Asian EFL Journal Research Articles, 27(4.4), 116-132.
Lantolf, J. P. & Appel. G. (1994). Vygotskian approaches to second language research. New Jersy: Ablex, p.33.
Low, D. & Robinson, T. (2015). A Motivation Scaffold to Improve the Learning Engagement of Students. TEACH Journal of Christian Education, 9(1),30-38. Available at:https:// research. avondale. edu. Au/teach/vol9/iss1/7.
Mango, C. (2010). The Effect of Scaffolding on Children’s Reading Speed, Reading Anxiety, and Reading Proficiency. TESOL Journal, Vol. 3, 92-98.
Niemiec, C. P. & Ryan, R. M. (2009). Autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the classroom: applying self-determination theory to educational practice. Theory and Research in Education, 7(2), 133-144. Available at:http:/ /journals.sagepub. com/doi/10.1177/ 1477878509104318.
Ohta, A. (2000). Rethinking interaction in SLA: Developmentally appropriate assistance in the zone of proximal development and the acquisition of L2 grammar.In J. Lantolf, ed., Sociocultural theory and second language learning, 1st ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 51-78.
Onyekuru, B. U. (2015). Field dependence-field independence cognitive style, Gender, Career Choice and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Studies in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(10), 76-85. Available at: http://www.
Reeve, J. (2018). A Self-determination Theory Perspective on Student Engagement. In S.L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly and C. Wylie, ed., Handbook of Research on Student Engagement,1st ed. Newyork: Springer, pp. 149-172. Available at: https: //www. researchgate .net/publication/ 278716228.
Otoshi, J. & Heffernan, N. (2018). An Analysis of a Hypothesized Model of EFL Students Motivation Based on Self-Determination Theory. Asian EFL Journal Research Articles, 13(3), 66-86.
Roll, I., Aleven, V., McLaren, B., Ryu, E., Baker, R., and Koedinger, K. (2006). The Help Tutor:Does Metacognitive Feedback Improve Students’ Help-Seeking Actions, Skills and Learning? In: International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. [online]Jhongli, Taiwan, pp. 360-369. Available at: http:// link. springer. com/ chapter/ 10.1007/11774303_36.
Stansfield, C. & Hansen, J. (1983). Field Dependence-Independence as a Variable in Second Language Cloze Test Performance. TESOL Quarterly, 17(1), 29-38.
Vallerand, R. J. and Bissonnette, R. (1992). Intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivational styles as predictors of behavior: a prospective study. Journal of Personality, 60(3), 599–620. Available at: https:// doi. Org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00922.x.
Verma, S. (2001). Learning Styles and study skills of two groups of science and arts students. Pranchi Psycho Cultural Dimension, 17(2), 113.
Witkin, H. A., Moore, C. A., Goodenough, D. R. and Cow, P.W. (1997). Field-Dependent and Field-Independent Cognitive Styles and Their Educational Implications. Review of Educational Research, 47(1), 1-64.
Wood, D., Bruner, J. S. and Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 17(2), 89-100. Available at: j.1469-7610.1976. tb00381. x.
Volume 10, Issue 41 - Serial Number 41
تابستان 1401
July 2022
Pages 23-36
  • Receive Date: 20 February 2022
  • Revise Date: 14 March 2022
  • Accept Date: 07 April 2022
  • First Publish Date: 07 April 2022