Predictive Power of Test-taking Strategies, Critical Thinking, and Self-efficacy in Accounting for Female Iranian Ph.D. Students’ Language Proficiency: The Case of EPT

Document Type : Research Paper


English Department, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran


The present study was intended to investigate the roles of test-taking strategies, critical thinking, and self-efficacy in the language proficiency of the female Iranian Ph.D. students at Islamic Azad University (IAU), Shahrekord Branch, Shahrekord, Iran. The participants of the study, who were 98 Ph.D. students from a range of disciplines, were getting ready to sit for the English Proficiency Test (EPT) as a partial requirement for the completion of their courses and take the Comprehensive Exam subsequently. These participants were required to complete the test-taking strategies, critical thinking, and self-efficacy questionnaires, one questionnaire per session, towards the end of their English course with the present researcher. They also took a sample of EPT for their final exam. Standard multiple regression was conducted to see how well self-efficacy, critical thinking, and test-taking strategies could predict the participants’ language proficiency. The obtained results revealed that language proficiency had strong, positive, and significant correlations with critical thinking, test-taking strategies, and self-efficacy. Moreover, it was found that all the three independent variables were significant predictors of language proficiency, with critical thinking being the best predictor, test-taking strategies the second, and self-efficacy the third. The significance of these results lies in the fact that individual attributes like critical thinking, self-efficacy, and test-taking strategies play a significant role in the success of students when it comes to language proficiency.


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Volume 10, Issue 41 - Serial Number 41
تابستان 1401
July 2022
Pages 151-163
  • Receive Date: 11 January 2022
  • Revise Date: 14 March 2022
  • Accept Date: 19 May 2022
  • First Publish Date: 19 May 2022